Gorgan Şablon:Pronunciation (Şablon:Lang-fa;<ref>Also Romanized as Gorgān, Gurgān, and Gurgan. Şablon:IPA-fa</ref> formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (Şablon:Lang)<ref>Also Romanized as Astarābād, Asterabad, and Esterabad. Şablon:IPA-fa</ref><ref>Şablon:GEOnet3</ref> is the capital of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies approximately Şablon:Convert to the north east of Tehran, some Şablon:Convert away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census; its population was 269,226, in 73,702 families.<ref>Şablon:IranCensus2006</ref>
The Modern Persian word Gorgān (Şablon:Lang) is derived from Middle Persian Gurgān (Şablon:Lang), itself from Old Persian Varkāna (Şablon:Lang), the Achaemenid satrapy southeast of Caspian Sea (encompassed all of the present day Golestan Province, as well as some eastern parts of the Mazandaran province, and some southern parts of the modern-day Turkmenistan), which is reflected in Greek sources as Hyrcania (Şablon:Lang), Hyrcani or Hyrcana. The region is also mentioned in Avesta as Vəhrkāna (Şablon:Lang). The name is derived from the Proto-Iranian word *vrka-, meaning "wolf".
The Caspian form of the name is Wergen.
In modern times and until 1937, the city used to be known as Astarābād or Estarābād (Şablon:Lang), which also can be read as Ester-ābād ("City of Esther"), based on which some has theorized that it refers to Esther, wife of the Persian King Xerxes I.
According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania and site of the "royal palace".<ref>Şablon:Cite book</ref> The term means "the yellow city", and it was given to it from the great number of oranges, lemons, and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city.<ref>Şablon:Cite web</ref>
Gurgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by the invading Arab Muslims in 8th century.
The "Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", which is currently called "Gorgan".
Astarabad was an important political and religious city during the Qajar dynasty.
Geography and climate
The wide Dasht-e Gorgan (Plains of Gorgan) are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about Şablon:Convert.
According to Köppen climate classification, Gorgan has a Cfa humid subtropical climate. In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds, altitude and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous, and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is Şablon:Convert and the annual rainfall is Şablon:Convert.
The population of the city has been 329,536 as of 2011.
Majority of people of Gorgan speak Persian. A big portion of the city are migrants from nearby regions, including Mazanderanis, Azeris, people from Semnan and Khorasan provinces, as well as some Turkmens, and a small population of Kazakhs.
- House of Karen, an aristocratic feudal family first attested in the Arsacid era, belonged to the region of Hyrcania.
- Fakhroddin Asaad Gorgani, Persian poet and the composer of Vis and Ramin.
- Abu Sa'id al-Darir al-Jurjani, 9th century astronomer and mathematician
- Al-Masihi, 10th century physician and teacher of Avicenna
- Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, 11th century grammarian and literary theorist
- Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani, 12th century royal physician
- Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi), 14th century mystic and founder of Hurufism
- Rustam Gorgani, 16th century physician
- Mir Fendereski, philosopher, poet and mysti
- Mir Damad, 17th century Islamic scholar and Neoplatonic philosopher
- Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi, 18th century chief minister to Nader Shah
- Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi, a notable writer, satirist, and one of the pioneering figures of the women's movement of Iran
- Firishta, historian
- Sardar Rafie Yanehsari, Governor of Astarabad
- Mohammad Reza Lotfi, Traditional Persian musician
- Nader Ebrahimi, author, poet, director, and researcher
- Maryam Zandi, photographer
Culture and art
Gorgan (as well as the whole Golestan province) has a world-famous carpet and rug industry, the Turkmen rug, made by Turkmen people. The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Bukhara, which is now in modern-day Uzbekistan.
- Gorgan chinaware tabriz museum.jpg
Ceramic bowl from the Seljuk period
- Ceramic compound vessel- 12-13th century - Gorgan - inventory number 83 - Abgineh Museum of Tehran.JPG
Ceramic compound vessel, 12-13th century, Gorgan,Abgineh Museum of Tehran
- Nahar Khoran Forest (Şablon:Lang)
- Alangdare Forest (Şablon:Lang)
- Ziarat Village (Şablon:Lang)
- Hezarpich Hill (Şablon:Lang)
- Emadiyyeh School
- Sorkhankalateh Hill (Şablon:Lang)
- Ismail Shirine Sorkhankalateh
- Qajar era underground bathroom, Sorkhankalateh
Nahar Khoran Forest
- نهارخوران گرگان.JPG
- Ziyarat Gorgan.jpg
- آبشار زیارت گرگان.jpg
Ziarat Waterfall, Ziarat Village
- Islamic Azad University of Gorgan
- Golestan University of Medical Sciences<ref>Şablon:Cite web</ref>
- Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources
- Mirdamad Institute of Higher Education
- Lamei Gorgani Institute of Higher Education
- Hakeem Jorjani Institute of Higher Education
There is an international airport near the city.
- Şablon:Flagicon Aktau, Kazakhstan<ref>KZ-Today September 11, 2006</ref>
- Şablon:Flagicon Samsun, Turkey (2006)