Chagatai Khan (Şablon:Lang-tr; Persian: Şablon:Nastaliq: Joghatai , Şablon:Lang-mn, Tsagadai; 22 December 1183 – 1 July 1242) was the second son of Genghis Khan. He was Khan of the Chagatai Khanate from 1226-1242 C.E.<ref name="books.google">Şablon:Cite book</ref> The Chagatai language and Chagatai Turks take their names from him. He inherited most of what are now the five Central Asian states after the death of his father.<ref name="books.google" /> He was also appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the execution of the Yassa, the written code of law created by Genghis Khan, though that lasted only until Genghis Khan was crowned Khan of the Mongol Empire.<ref name="books.google" /> The Empire later came to be known as the Chagatai Khanate, a descendant empire of the Mongol Empire. Chagatai Khan was considered hot-headed and somewhat temperamental by his relatives, because of his attitude of non-acceptance of Jochi as Great Khan.<ref name="books.google" /> He was the most vocal about this issue among his relations. Chaghatai himself appears to have been a just and energetic governor, though perhaps rough and uncouth, and addicted to hard drinking.<ref name="books.google" /> At any rate, he was animated by the soldier-like spirit of his father, and succeeded in keeping order among as heterogeneous a population as a kingdom was ever composed of.<ref name="books.google" />
Administration and religious tolerance
In 1232, when sedition showed itself at Bukhara, he acted with promptness, if with severity, and saved his country from a far-reaching calamity.<ref name="books.google" /> He was, in all probability, an old-fashioned Mongol, for he stood by the Yassa and that he showed little favour to what was, at that time in his dominions, the comparatively new and rising religion of Islam.<ref name="books.google" /> He must, however, have been fairly tolerant, for it is recorded that his minister for Transoxiana was a Muslim, called the Jumilat-ul-Mulk or Karachar Nevian,<ref name="Erskine">Şablon:Cite book</ref> and that mosques and colleges were founded during his reign.<ref name="books.google" /> Chaghatai was neither ever inclined towards Christianity, though that religion, as practiced by the Nestorians, must have been familiar to him.<ref name="books.google" />
Chaghatai's own capital was at Almaligh, in the valley of the Upper Ili, near the site of the present Kulja, and consequently in the extreme east of his dominion.<ref name="books.google" /> His reason for fixing it in that remote position, instead of at Bukhara or Samarkand, was probably one of necessity. His Mongol tribesmen and followers;the mainstay of his power—were passionately fond of the life of the steppes.<ref name="books.google" /> The dwellers in houses and towns were, in their eyes, a degenerate and effeminate race;the tillers of the soil, slaves who toiled like cattle, in order that their betters might pass their time in luxury. They would serve no Khan who did not pass a life worthy of free-born men and Chaghatai and his immediate successors probably saw, as his later descendants are described by Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat to have seen, that the one way of retaining the allegiance of his own people, was to humour their desires in this respect, and live, with them, a nomad's life.<ref name="books.google" />
Death and aftermath
Chaghatai died in 1241, after a reign of about fourteen years, and within the same year the death of Ogedai occurred at Karakorum.<ref name="books.google" /> Thus two out of four of the chief divisions of the Mongol empire were suddenly deprived of their sovereigns, with the result that nearly the whole of the successors of Genghis Khan began disputing for the succession.<ref name="books.google" /> However, for the time being, it ended in Turakina, Ogedai's widow, being appointed regent.<ref name="books.google" /> But lasting disputes remained among the rival claimants and for long afterward, the disputes regarding the succession to the throne of the great Khan became inextricably mixed up with the affairs, especially in the eastern part, of Chaghatai's Khanate.<ref name="books.google" />
Little is known of the way in which Chaghatai disposed of his kingdom at his death, and there appears to be no mention, anywhere, of his having followed the ancestral custom of his house in distributing it among his descendants. He is recorded to have left a numerous family, but to have been succeeded by a grandson, and a minor, named Qara Hülëgü, while his widow, Ebuskun, assumed the regency.<ref name="books.google"/>
Chagatai's son Mutukan (Mö'etüken) was killed during the siege of Bamiyan in 1221.<ref>Ratchnevsky, Paul (1991) Genghis Khan: His Life and Legacy Blackwell, Oxford, UK, page 164, ISBN 0-631-18949-1</ref>
Turkistan, Transoxiana, and the adjacent regions were controlled directly by his descendents but not Kashghar, Yarkand, Khotan, Aksu, and the southern slopes of the Tian Shan mountains;or, in other words, to the province south of the line of the Tian Shan, which is called, in our times, Eastern Turkistan.<ref name="books.google" /> As regards this province, Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat says that it was given by Chaghatai, presumably at his death, to the clan or house of Dughlat, whose members were reckoned to be of the purest Mongol descent, and one of the noblest divisions of that people.<ref name="books.google" /> The Dughlats were thus made hereditary chiefs, or Amirs, of the various districts of Eastern Turkistan, as far back as the time of Chaghatai, for it is chiefly on this incident that hinges the permanent division of the Chaghatai realm into two branches, at a later date.<ref name="books.google" />
Baidar was the second son of Chagatai Khan. He participated in the European campaign ("The elder boys campaign" as it was known in Mongolia) with his nephew Büri from 1235-1241. He commanded the Mongol army assigned to Poland with Kadan and, probably, Orda Khan
Early in May 1241 they entered Moravia. Then they continued via Brno, to join Batu's main army in Hungary. The destruction in Poland, Silesia and Moravia was all much of the same kind.
In 1240 Baidar participated in the election of Güyük Khan in 1247.
Genealogy of Chaghatai Khanate
In Babr Nama written by Babur, Page 19, Chapter 1; described genealogy of his maternal grandfather Yunas Khan as:
"Chughtai Khanates" A research project by Dr Abdul Rauf Mughal