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Gorgan Şablon:Pronunciation (Şablon:Lang-fa;<ref>Also Romanized as Gorgān, Gurgān, and Gurgan. Şablon:IPA-fa</ref> formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (Şablon:Lang)<ref>Also Romanized as Astarābād, Asterabad, and Esterabad. Şablon:IPA-fa</ref><ref>Şablon:GEOnet3</ref> is the capital of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies approximately Şablon:Convert to the north east of Tehran, some Şablon:Convert away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census; its population was 269,226, in 73,702 families.<ref>Şablon:IranCensus2006</ref>


The Modern Persian word Gorgān (Şablon:Lang) is derived from Middle Persian Gurgān (Şablon:Lang), itself from Old Persian Varkāna (Şablon:Lang), the Achaemenid satrapy southeast of Caspian Sea (encompassed all of the present day Golestan Province, as well as some eastern parts of the Mazandaran province, and some southern parts of the modern-day Turkmenistan), which is reflected in Greek sources as Hyrcania (Şablon:Lang), Hyrcani or Hyrcana. The region is also mentioned in Avesta as Vəhrkāna (Şablon:Lang). The name is derived from the Proto-Iranian word *vrka-, meaning "wolf".

In post-Islamic Persia the city was known as Jurjān (Şablon:Lang), the Arabized form of the Persian word.

The Caspian form of the name is Wergen.

In modern times and until 1937, the city used to be known as Astarābād or Estarābād (Şablon:Lang), which also can be read as Ester-ābād ("City of Esther"), based on which some has theorized that it refers to Esther, wife of the Persian King Xerxes I.


Şablon:Main There are several archaeological sites near Gorgan, including Tureng Tepe and Shah Tepe, in which there are remains dating to the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras.

According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania and site of the "royal palace".<ref>Şablon:Cite book</ref> The term means "the yellow city", and it was given to it from the great number of oranges, lemons, and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city.<ref>Şablon:Cite web</ref>

Hyrcania became part of the Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC), its founder, or his successor Cambyses (530-522 BC).

The Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods.

At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, and province.<ref name="Iranica-Bivar">Bivar, A.D.H. "Gorgan" Encyclopædia Iranica online</ref>

Gurgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state even after Persia was conquered by the invading Arab Muslims in 8th century.

In 1210, the city was invaded and sacked by the army of Kingdom of Georgia under command of the brothers Mkhargrdzeli.<ref>Şablon:Cite book</ref><ref>Şablon:Cite book</ref>

The "Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", which is currently called "Gorgan".

Gurgan with its surrounding regions was sometimes considered as part of the Parthia (the Greater Khorasan) or the Tabaristan regions.

Astarabad was an important political and religious city during the Qajar dynasty.

Geography and climate

The wide Dasht-e Gorgan (Plains of Gorgan) are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about Şablon:Convert.

Some Şablon:Convert east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park, home to a big portion of the fauna of Iran.

According to Köppen climate classification, Gorgan has a Cfa humid subtropical climate. In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds, altitude and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous, and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperature is Şablon:Convert and the annual rainfall is Şablon:Convert.

Şablon:Weather box


The population of the city has been 329,536 as of 2011.

Majority of people of Gorgan speak Persian. A big portion of the city are migrants from nearby regions, including Mazanderanis, Azeris, people from Semnan and Khorasan provinces, as well as some Turkmens, and a small population of Kazakhs.

Gorgani, a dialect of Mazanderani language, was formerly spoken in the city, but it is extinct now, and only several of its words have remained in the accent of the Persian-speakers of the city.

Notable people

Şablon:See also

Historical figures

Dosya:Astarabadi and Nader.JPG
Picture showing Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi in pink clothes and Nader Shah Afshar on horseback.

Contemporary figures

Culture and art

Gorgan (as well as the whole Golestan province) has a world-famous carpet and rug industry, the Turkmen rug, made by Turkmen people. The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Bukhara, which is now in modern-day Uzbekistan.

Entertainment locations


Capri Cinema (Şablon:Lang), Bahman Cinema (Şablon:Lang), and Asr-e Jadid Cinema (Şablon:Lang), formerly called Moulin-Rouge Cinema (Şablon:Lang), are among the oldest cinemas in Gorgan.


Mirdamad Cultural Institute (MCI)


Dosya:Gorgan Railway Station.JPG
Gorgan Railway Station

There is an international airport near the city.


Shahrdari Gorgan BC, which compete in the Iranian Basketball Super League, is particularly popular in Gorgan.

Currently the main football team of Gorgan is Etka Gorgan F.C., which competes in the Azadegan League.

Sister cities

See also



External links

Şablon:Commons category Şablon:Golestan Province Şablon:Gorgan County