A Muslim is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran (Koran), their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. They also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah ) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith).<ref>Şablon:Cite book</ref> "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who submits (to God)".<ref>Şablon:Cite web</ref>
The beliefs of Muslims include: that God (Şablon:Lang-ar [[Allāh|Şablon:Transl]]) is eternal, transcendent and absolutely one (tawhid or monotheism); that God is incomparable, self-sustaining and neither begets nor was begotten; that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that has been revealed before through many prophets including Abraham, Moses, Ishmael and Jesus;<ref name="People-of-the-Book" /> that these previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time (tahrif)<ref name="Distorted" /> and that the Qur'an is the final unaltered revelation from God (The Final Testament).<ref>Submission.org, Quran: The Final Testament, Authorized English Version with Arabic Text, Revised Edition IV,ISBN 0-9729209-2-7, p. x.</ref>
The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith (shahadah), daily prayers (salat), fasting during the month of Ramadan (sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.<ref name="WSU" /><ref name="CIA" />
Who counts as a Muslim
There are customs stating that anyone above the age of fifteen who possesses the faculties of rationality, logic or sanity, but misses numerous successive Friday prayers (jumu'ah) without a valid excuse, no longer qualifies as a Muslim.<ref>Şablon:Cite book</ref><ref>The Five Pillars of Islam, p 101, Musharraf Hussain - 2012</ref>
Most Muslims will accept anyone who has publicly pronounced Shahadah as a Muslim.<ref>Şablon:Cite web</ref> The shahadah states:
The testimony authorized by God in the Quran can found in Surah 3:18 states.<ref name="TrueIslam">Şablon:Cite web</ref>
"There is no god except God", which in Arabic (La Elaha Ella Allah), is the exact testimony which God Himself utters, as well as the angels and those who possess knowledge utter.<ref name="TrueIslam"/>
Şablon:See also The word muslim (Şablon:Lang-ar, Şablon:IPA-ar; Şablon:IPAc-en, Şablon:IPAc-en, Şablon:IPAc-en or moslem Şablon:IPAc-en, Şablon:IPAc-en<ref name="muslim pron" />) is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact".<ref>Burns & Ralph, World Civilizations, 5th ed., p. 371.</ref><ref>Entry for šlm, p. 2067, Appendix B: Semitic Roots, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed., Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000, ISBN 0-618-08230-1.</ref> A female adherent is a muslima (Şablon:Lang-ar) (also transliterated as "Muslimah"<ref>Muslimah. Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2016</ref> ). The plural form in Arabic is muslimūn (Şablon:Lang) or muslimīn (Şablon:Lang), and its feminine equivalent is muslimāt (Şablon:Lang). The Arabic form muslimun is the stem IV participleŞablon:Refn of the triliteral S-L-M.
The ordinary word in English is "Muslim". It is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", which is an older spelling.Şablon:Citation needed The word Mosalman (Şablon:Lang-fa, alternatively Mussalman) is a common equivalent for Muslim used in Central Asia. Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mohammedans or Mahometans.<ref>See for instance the second edition of A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by H. W. Fowler, revised by Ernest Gowers (Oxford, 1965).</ref> Although such terms were not necessarily intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they allegedly imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God.<ref>Şablon:Cite book</ref> Other obsolete terms include Muslimite<ref>Şablon:Cite OED</ref> and Muslimist.<ref>Şablon:Cite book</ref>
Musulmán/Mosalmán (Şablon:Lang-fa) is a synonym for Muslim and is modified from Arabic. It is the origin of the Spanish word Şablon:Lang, the (dated) German Şablon:Lang, the French word musulman, the Polish words Şablon:Lang and Şablon:Lang, the Portuguese word Şablon:Lang, the Italian word Şablon:Lang or Şablon:Lang, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word Şablon:Lang (all used for a Muslim).<ref>Musalman - Internet Encyclopedia of Religion</ref> In English it was sometimes spelled Mussulman and has become archaic in usage.
Apart from Persian, Spanish, Polish, Portuguese, Italian, and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Dari, Pashto, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Panjabi, Turkish, Kazakh, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Azeri, Maltese, Hungarian, Czech, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian, Ukrainian, Romanian, Dutch, and Sanskrit.
The Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said:
Used to describe earlier prophets in the Qur'an
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judiaism and Christianity, and their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Ishmael, and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity, fasting and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we are Muslims (wa-shahad be anna muslimūn)." In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat (Torah, Old Testament) to Moses, the Zabur (Psalms) to David and the Injil (Gospel, New Testament) to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets.
The most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims,<ref name="Distrib" /> followed by Pakistan (11.0%), Bangladesh (9.2%), and Egypt (4.9%).<ref name="Islam_by_country" /> About 20% of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle East and North Africa,<ref name="Distrib" /><ref>Şablon:Cite book and Şablon:Cite book</ref>
Sizable minorities are also found in India, China, Russia, Ethiopia, the Americas, Australia and parts of Europe. The country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.<ref name="JDB" /> Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world.
Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni.<ref name=Sunni /><ref name="Sunni Islam" /> The second and third largest sects, Shia and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%,<ref name=Shia /><ref>Şablon:Cite web</ref> and 1%<ref name="ahmadi" /> respectively.
With about 1.6 billion followers, almost a quarter of earth's population,<ref>Şablon:Cite web</ref><ref name="Distrib"/><ref>Şablon:Cite news</ref> Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world.<ref>Şablon:Cite news</ref> due primarily to the young age and high fertility rate of Muslims,<ref name="pew"/> with Muslim having a rate of (3.1) compared to the world average of (2.5). According to the same study religious switching has no impact on Muslim population, since the number of people who embrace Islam and those who leave Islam are roughly equal.<ref name="pew">Şablon:Cite report</ref>
A Pew Center study in 2011, found that Muslims have the highest number of adherents under the age of 15 (or- 34% of the total Muslim population) of any major religion, while only 7% are aged 60+ (the smallest percentage of any major religion). According to the same study Muslims have also the highest fertility rates (3.1) than any other major religious group.<ref name="Pew2016">Şablon:Cite web</ref>
- Non-denominational Muslim
- Islamic schools and branches
- Lists of Muslims
- Muslim holidays
- Muslim world
- Ritual Prayer: Its Meaning and Manner – The Islamic Supreme Council of America.
- Muhammad and the First Muslim Ummah – University of Chicago.
- Islamophobia Today Newspaper - An Islamophobia news clearing house
- Sammy Aziz Rahmatti, Understanding and Countering Islamophobia.
- Şablon:Cite web
- Şablon:Cite web