Y-DNA haplogroups of Turkmens
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Y-DNA haplogroups of Turkmens
Recent studies on the Turkmens of Iran and Afghanistan suggest that haplogroup Q is the dominant Y-DNA in Turkmens. So far, there have been two detailed studies on the Y-DNA of Turkmens.
- One research(Cristofaro et al.,2013) found that the Turkmens in Afghanistan have 31.1% Q-M25(currently Q1alb) and 2.7% Q1a3-M346(currently Q1a2)(Q total 25/74=33.8%), followed by R1a1a-M198(16.2%, also R1b 2.74%, R2 1.4%), J1c3-Page8(8.1%, also other various J 9.5%), N1b-P43(6.8%), G2a-P303(4.1%), L1a-M76(4.1%), and various subgroups of E1b1b 5.4%, O3(KL2, M134) 2.7%, C(M401) 1.4%, H(M69*) 1.4%.<ref name="Cristofaro2013">J D Cristofaro et al., 2013, "Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge", http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0076748</ref>
- Another study(Grugni et al.,2012) found that 42.6%(29/68) of Iranian Turkmens(in Golestan) have haplogroup Q-M25(currently Q1a1b), followed by R1a1a-M198(14.5%, also R1b 4.3%, R2 1.4%), J1c3-Page8(5.8%, also other various J 8.8%), G2a(5.8%), L3-M357(5.8%), E1b1b(4.3%), NO*(2.9%, xN, xO), H(1.4%), T(1.4%).<ref>Viola Grugni et al.,2012, "Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians", http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0041252. It seems that more correctly rounded frequency-figures might be 14.7%(instead of 14.5%), 5.9%(instead of 5.8%), 4.4%(instead of 4.3%), 1.5%(instead of 1.4%).</ref>
- In 2015, Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty were excavated in Shuzhuanglou Site(northernmost Hebei China, 700YBP), all 3 noble men buried being turned out to be haplogroup Q(subclade not analyzed). The principal occupant was turned out to be Gaodang-King Korguz(高唐王=趙王 阔里吉思). His mt-DNA is D4m2, two others' mt-DNA is A.<ref>Şablon:Cite journal</ref> Korguz(阔里吉思), a son of a princess of Kublai Khan(元世祖, son of Genghis Khan), was the King of Ongud tribe(汪古部). He died in 1298 and was reburied in Shuzhuanglou in 1311 by his son. (Not to be confused with Uyghur King Korguz who died in 1242.) Ongud tribe was a descendant of Shatuo tribe(沙陀族) which was a tribe of Gok-Turk(Western Turkic Khaganate) and was prominent in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of China, building 3 Dynasties. Korguz's two queens were all princesses of Yuan Dynasty(Kublai Khan's granddaughters). It was very important for Yuan Dynasty to maintain marriage alliance with Ongud tribe which had been a very principal assistant since Genghis Khan's period. About 16 princesses of Yuan Dynasty were married to kings of Ongud tribe.
- Judging from these papers mentioned above and other history books, there is a high possibility that the ruling class of Gok-Turk was Y haplogroup Q, and the ruling clans of Oghuz Turks were Q1a1b-M25. Also, the royal family of Ashina(阿史那) clan that ruled Gok-Turk and Khazaria kingdom is maintained to be haplogroup Q1b.<ref>https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/ashina-royal-dynasty/about</ref> It is also plausible because Turk is a descendant of Xiongnu that was ruled by haplogroup Q. For example, in the ancient cemetery in Heigouliang(Xinjiang), which is known as the summer palace of Xiongnu king, 12 men were excavated, and all belong to Y haplogroup Q. Especially, all 4 Q1b men among them represent hosts of tombs.<ref>Y-Chromosome Genetic Diversity of the Ancient North Chinese populations, Li Hongjie, Jilin University-China, 2012</ref>(Xiongnu nobles/conquerors found in another ancient site are turned out to be Q-M3)<ref>Y chromosomes of ancient Hunnu people and its implication on the phylogeny of East Asian linguistic families. LL. Kang et al., 2013</ref>